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Metacognition & Self-Regulated Learning

Cognitive strategies are the basic mental abilities we use to think, study, and learn.

  • recalling information from memory,

  • analyzing sounds and images,

  • making associations between or comparing/contrasting different pieces of information, and making inferences or interpreting text.

They help an individual achieve a goal, such as comprehending text or solving a math problem, and they can be individually identified and measured.


In contrast, Metacognitive strategies are used to ensure that an overarching learning goal is being or has been reached as ...

  • include planning how to approach a learning task,

  • using appropriate skills and strategies to solve a problem,

  • monitoring one’s own comprehension of text,

  • self-assessing and self-correcting in response to the self-assessment,

  • evaluating progress toward the completion of a task, and

  • becoming aware of distracting stimuli.

To Summarize, "Metacognition" refers to awareness of one’s own knowledge—what one does and does not know—and one’s ability to understand, control, and manipulate one’s cognitive processes.

Metacognition is one’s ability to use prior knowledge to plan a strategy for approaching a learning task, take necessary steps to problem solve, reflect on and evaluate results,

and modify one’s approach as needed.


Elements of Metacognition

Metacognitive knowledge & Metacognitive regulation

Metacognitive knowledge & its categories


Why Teach Metacognitive Skills?

Research shows that metacognitive skills can be taught to students to improve their learning. It helps learners choose the right cognitive tool for the task and plays a critical role in successful self-directed learning. It includes knowing when and where to use strategies for learning and problem solving as well as how and why to use specific strategies.

As students become more skilled at using metacognitive strategies, they gain confidence and become more independent as learners. Metacognition plays a critical role in successful learning, it is imperative that instructors help learners develop metacognitively.


Recommended Instructional Strategies

Explicitly teach pupils metacognitive strategies, including how to plan, monitor, and evaluate their learning. Metacognition is a process that spans three distinct phases, and that, to be successful thinkers, students must do the following:

1. Develop a plan before approaching a learning task, such as reading for comprehension or solving a math problem.

2. Monitor their understanding; use “fix-up” strategies when meaning breaks down.

3. Evaluate their thinking after completing the task.

Teachers can model the application of questions, and they can prompt learners to ask themselves questions during each phase. They can incorporate into lesson plans opportunities for learners to practice using these questions during learning tasks, as illustrated in the following examples:

The goal of teaching metacognitive strategies is to help learners become comfortable with these strategies so that they employ them automatically to learning tasks, focusing their attention, deriving meaning, and making adjustments if something goes wrong.

What does a self-regulated learner look like?

As described by Zimmerman, "A successful self-regulated learner is ....."

‘Proactive in their efforts to learn because they are aware of their strengths and limitations and because they are guided by personally set goals and task-related strategies, such as using an arithmetic addition strategy to check the accuracy of solutions to subtraction problems. These learners monitor their behavior in terms of their goals and self-reflect on their increasing effectiveness. This enhances their self-satisfaction and motivation to continue to improve their methods of learning.


Teachers should acquire the professional understanding and skills to develop their "Learners' metacognitive knowledge, to administer "Self-Directed Learning"


"Metacognitive skills guided in Self-Directed Learning assures long lasting success".......


In Education:

Learners who demonstrate a wide variety of metacognitive skills

  • perform better on exams and

  • complete work more efficiently

  • use the right tool for the job,

  • modify learning strategies as needed,

  • identifying blocks to learning and

  • change tools or strategies to ensure goal attainment.

In Life :

Individuals with well-developed metacognitive skills

  • can think through a problem or approach a learning task,

  • select appropriate strategies, and

  • make decisions about a course of action to resolve the problem or

  • successfully perform the task.

We now accept the fact that learning is a lifelong process of keeping abreast of change. And the most pressing task is to teach people how to learn.....................Peter Drucker

"T H I N K" !!!!

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